做称职的家电维修技术人员

2009年9月21日 郝铭 发表评论 阅读评论

做称职的家电维修技术人员

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    上世纪八十年代和九十年代国内各电视机生产厂采用的机芯不外是日立的NP8机芯(TA7193)、松下M11机芯(AN5612 AN5620)、东芝两片(TA7698)等,是典型的模拟机型,原理简单、电路简单、机芯结构简单、电路功能少。从事电器维修的人员只要经过短期的学习,基本上就可以看懂电路图,修理、排除一般的故障,能对外承接电视机的维修工作。

     随着新世纪的来临,数字化时代随之到来,一场家用电器技术大革命势如破竹,数字技术、计算机技术大量的应用在各种家用电器上,家用电器成为了名副其实的高科技产品,今后的家电产品;电视机、空调、电冰箱、洗衣机、音视产品(DVD、DV、数码照相机、音响)、家庭通讯产品(数字电话、手机、传真机)、家庭办公设备(计算机、打印机)、特别是铺天盖地而来的平板电视(PDP LCD)等等,都是我们家电维修技术人员要面对的问题,是一个巨大的维修市场。如果没有高技术的维修手段,过去再有实践经验的老师傅也将会被淘汰出局,

     我们熟悉的电视机也发生巨大的变化;因为数字技术的应用,在处理信号的方式、电路的原理、结构、性能均发生了革命性的改变,和上世纪90年代生产的电视机已完全不同(维修高手修理起来也不向过去的模拟机修理得心应手)。这个数字时代的到来为我们的维修人员提供了一个广阔发展的空间,但是也向我们提出了更高的要求。

      新技术的快速发展,数字技术应用的不断变化,我们原来的维修人员感到越来越不适应,已逐步的认识到现有的知识技术水平是无法跟上发展,产生了危机感和紧迫感。这就要求我们原来的维修人员(甚至从事家电维修几十年的)不断的学习新知识、新技术,提高自己的知识水平和技术水平,提高自己对新产品电路分析及故障判断能力,踏准技术进步的节拍,使自己的维修技能永远走在技术进步的前列。

     目前家电维修人员的担子越来越重,过去的老模拟产品要修,现在的新数字化产品要修,还要准备迎接未面世的陌生的高技术的新产品。如果踏不准技术进步的节拍,维修人员面临的将是被淘汰、失业。

      从事家电维修是一项具有挑战性、刺激性(每日遇到的故障均不重复)的工作,遇到疑难故障会使你绞尽脑汁,苦苦冥思,一旦故障排除那柳暗花明,难以言表的愉快,更增加对维修工作的兴趣、热爱和自信心。令你一旦选定从事家电维修事业,就没有回头路可走,你必须勇往直前工作到最后,每一台疑难故障机的维修,都会使你广开思路,翻阅大量的资料,举一反三,在技术上取得巨大的收获,每一台高度疑难故障机都是你一次进步的机会、前进的阶梯,不获全胜决不收兵。

     由于技术的快速推进,你如满足于现状,原来掌握的技术将变得老化、落后、没有用、最后你没有技术,正是这样,现在能坚持从事家电维修的人员,能跟上技术发展的维修技术人员又是珍贵的,受人尊重的高科技技术人员。以后,其社会地位及经济收入是很可观的,是真正的“金领”。原有的维修技术人员怎样才能做到这一点,首先你要对自己有信心,相信自己经过努力一定能做好,但是对待怎样去做必须认真,要认识到要有一个艰苦的、系统的学习过程,这就要求你必须针对自身的情况(基础知识水平,逻辑分析能力,动手操作能力,知识的积累)进行科学合理的学习安排,踏准技术进步的节奏,维修技术跟上总体技术的发展,这是目前我们的维修技术人员必须充分的认识到的;要看到维修工作美好、广阔的前景,又要看到自身不足,必须在技术上刻苦的学习,紧紧跟上。找准差距刻苦学习。

    要能对目前数字化家电产品的各种故障进行检修,首先必须要了解该产品的工作原理,对该产品的信号流程,各部分对信号处理的原理掌握(对于电视机而言即是解码原理及解码的全过程),就可以对各种故障现象进行分析检查,达到把故障排除的目的。要做到这一点就必须有一套分析电路原理的本领。任何一台电器设备乃至家电设备的电路组成;都不外是直流电路、交流电路、数字电路、放大电路、谐振电路、振荡电路等基本电路组成,而整个电路的工作过程又不外乎是一个电磁感应过程,组成这些基本电路的元器件是半导体,要具备这些知识及能力首先要把电工基础、电子电路基础系统的学好,数字电路基础学好,还要掌握相关的计算机知识,作为一名合格的电视机维修人员,电视技术的基本知识是必不可少的这其中包括电视信号传播的基本理论,信号调制理论,黑白电视信号的组成,彩色电视的编码、解码技术。作为一名视频设备的维修人员(维修DVD/VCD)则应该了解MPEG压缩、解压的原理,要掌握DV的维修技术就必须掌握数字记录、重放、数字伺服的原理。向过去不进行电路分析、故障分析盲目修理是决不行的,故障越修越大。

    所有以上介绍到的基本知识,都是现代一名合格的维修人员必须要学习的,一名大学电子专业的本科毕业生也必须经过自身的学习努力才能成为一名合格的家电维修人员,所以在前几年某期电子报刊登一篇文章名为“一名大学硕士生搞家电维修工作屈才吗?”其文章的最后写道:“他不光不屈才,不一定能胜任”,可见要成为一名新世纪合格的家用电器维修人员,对我们来说是要有一个艰苦努力学习的过程。

    要做一个二十一世纪称职的家电维修技术人员,任重而道远。学海无止境,任何浅尝辄止的想法和行动必然会自身发展带来很大的危害。让我们共同努力,共同学习!      2006.10

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